Help:Wiki markup

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Template:Wiki markup

Shortcuts:
H:MARKUP
WP:MARKUP
A video about wikicode and how to use it.

Wiki markup is the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki software to format a page. To learn how to see this markup and to save an edit, see: Help:Editing.

Layout

Sections

Section headings

Template:Further2

Use headings to split articles into sections. Put a heading on a separate line. A level-two heading ("==") is the highest level editors use in an article.

What you type What it looks like
==Section headings==

''Headings'' organize your writing
into sections. The wiki software
can automatically generate a
[[Help:Section|table of contents]]
from them. Start with 2 'equals'
("==") characters.

===Subsection===

Using more 'equals' characters
creates a subsection.

====A smaller subsection====

Don't skip levels, like from two
("==") to four ("====") 'equals'
characters.

;A defined term: A semicolon at the
start of a line is a way of making
a definition where the word being
defined appears in bold.
The definition itself follows the
colon and is not rendered bold by
default. It is not a heading and 
does not appear in the table of
contents.
Section headings

Headings organize your writing into sections. The wiki software can automatically generate a table of contents from them. Start with 2 'equals' ("==") characters.

Subsection

Using more 'equals' characters creates a subsection.

A smaller subsection

Don't skip levels, like from two ("==") to four ("====") 'equals' characters.

A defined term
A semicolon at the start of a line is a way of making a definition where the word being defined appears in bold. The definition itself follows the colon and is not rendered bold by default. It is not a heading and does not appear in the table of contents.
'''Horizontal line'''

Separating with a horizontal
dividing line:
:this is above it...
----
:...and this is below it.
If you don't use a section header,
you don't get a TOC entry.

Horizontal line

Separating with a horizontal dividing line:

this is above it...

...and this is below it.

If you don't use a section header, you don't get a TOC entry.


Table of contents

When a page has at least four headings, a table of contents (TOC) will appear in front of the first header (after the lead). Putting __TOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to appear at that point (instead of just before the first heading). Putting __NOTOC__ anywhere forces the TOC to disappear. See also Compact TOC for alphabet and year headings.

Line breaks

  • You can make the wikitext more readable by putting in newlines, but see Wikipedia:Don't use line breaks for possible problems.
  • To break lines use the <br /> element. The HTML tag <br> will be converted to the XHTML <br /> tag by HTML Tidy in most instances. The <br> tag is not converted when used in editnotices or in the MediaWiki namespace — it will render invalid XHTML and will break tools such as Twinkle.
  • Please use these sparingly.
  • Close markup between lines; do not start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.
  • When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (see Help:List).
What you type What it looks like
A single newline has no
effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new
paragraph, or ends a list or
an indented part.

A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or an indented part.

You can break lines<br />
without starting a new paragraph.

You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

Indent text

What you type What it looks like

Left indent

:A colon at the start of a line
::causes the line to be indented,
:::most commonly used on Talk pages.
A colon at the start of a line
causes the line to be indented,
most commonly used on Talk pages.

Blockquote

When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

<blockquote> The '''blockquote''' tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does. </blockquote>

The blockquote tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

Center text

What you type What it looks like
<div class="center" style="width:auto; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;">Centered text</div>
Centered text

Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Help:Table#Centering tables.

Lists

Template:Further2

What you type What it looks like
* ''Unordered [[Help:List|list]]s'' are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars indicate a deeper level.
**: Previous item continues.
** A new line
* in a list
marks the end of the list.
* Of course you can start again.
  • Unordered lists are easy to do:
    • Start every line with a star.
      • More stars indicate a deeper level.
      Previous item continues.
    • A new line
  • in a list

marks the end of the list.

  • Of course you can start again.
# ''Numbered lists'' are:
## Very organized
## Easy to follow
#: Previous item continues
A new line marks the end of the list.
# New numbering starts with 1.
  1. Numbered lists are:
    1. Very organized
    2. Easy to follow
    Previous item continues

A new line marks the end of the list.

  1. New numbering starts with 1.
;Definition lists: Terms and their definitions.
;Hamlet: Also useful for texts of plays.
Definition lists
Terms and their definitions.
Hamlet
Also useful for texts of plays.

Retaining newlines and spaces

Shortcut:
H:POEM

The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like Template:Tag tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as Template:Tag. CSS styles may be applied to this tag, e.g.: <poem style="margin-left:2em;">.

What you type What it looks like
<poem>
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
  With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
  Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
  Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
</poem>

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
  With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
  Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
  Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

<poem style="font-family:Georgia,
       serif; font-size:120%;
       background-color: #F5F6CE;
       margin-left:0.3em;">
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.
</poem>

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
  A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
  Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

Format

Text formatting

Description What you type What it looks like

Italics, bold, small capital letters.

To ''italicize text'', just put
2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''

5 apostrophes for '''''bold italics'''''

For text as {{Smallcaps|small caps}},
that uses a [[Help:Template|template]].

To italicize text, just put 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text

5 apostrophes for bold italics

For text as small caps, that uses a template.

Small chunks of source code within a line of normal text.

Code is displayed in a monospace font.

function <code>int m2()</code> is nice

function int m2() is nice

Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has colored text and more stringent formatting. For example, to define a function: int m2(), with highlights.

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
  std::cout <<"Hello World!";
  return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>
#include <iostream>
int m2 (int ax, char *p_ax) {
  std::cout <<"Hello World!";
  return 0;
}

Small text.

Use <small>small text</small> if needed.

A span tag can set text font-size as
being <span style="font-size:87%">87%
of prior size</span>, to match an
image caption.

Use small text if needed.

A span tag can set text font-size as being 87% of prior size, to match an image caption.

Big text.

Better not use <big>big text</big>,
unless <small> it's <big>within</big>
small</small> text.

Better not use big text, unless it's within small text.

You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h, using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h.

Mr. Smith or 400 km/h.

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template.

Mary {{pad|4em}} had a little lamb.

Mary   had a little lamb.

Typewriter font.

(Also works beyond the end of a paragraph.)

<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics'', '''bold'''</tt>

<tt><nowiki>[[link]]

New paragraph </tt>started here.

arrow →

italics, bold

link

New paragraph started here.

Special characters

See also: Chess symbols in Unicode.

Diacritical marks

What you type What it looks like
&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; &AElig;

&Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;

&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde;

&Ograve; &Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash;

&Ugrave; &Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig;

&agrave; &aacute; &acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;

&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml;

&igrave; &iacute; &icirc; &iuml; &ntilde;

&ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &oelig;

&ugrave; &uacute; &ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ

Ç È É Ê Ë

Ì Í Î Ï Ñ

Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø

Ù Ú Û Ü ß

à á â ã ä å æ ç

è é ê ë

ì í î ï ñ

ò ó ô õ ö ø œ

ù ú û ü ÿ

Punctuation

What you type What it looks like
&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;

&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;

&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;

&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

&apos; &quot;

¿ ¡ § ¶

† ‡ • – —

‹ › « »

‘ ’ “ ”

' "

Other punctuation

The ‹pre› and ‹nowiki› markup tags are also available. (Permits [ { & } ] for example.)

Commercial symbols

What you type What it looks like
&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; 
&pound; &curren;

™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

Subscripts and superscripts

  • The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
  • The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
Description What you type What it looks like

Subscripts

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or 

x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324; 

x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

x1 x2 x3 or

x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄

x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or 

x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308; 

x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

x1 x2 x3 or

x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴

x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times; 10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m

1 hectare = 1 E4 m²

Greek characters

What you type What it looks like
&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; 

&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; 

&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf; 

&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega; 

&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta; 

&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu; 

&Nu; &Xi; &Omicron; &Pi; &Rho; &Sigma; 

&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega; 

α β γ δ ε ζ

η θ ι κ λ μ ν

ξ ο π ρ σ ς

τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ

Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ

Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ

Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

Mathematical characters

What you type What it looks like
&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; 

&minus; &plusmn; &infin; 

&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; 

&le; &ge; 

&times; &middot; &divide; &part; 

&prime; &Prime; 

&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; 

&oslash; 

&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; 

&sub; &sup; &sube; &supe; 

&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; 

&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr; 

&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr; 

∫ ∑ ∏ √

− ± ∞

≈ ∝ ≡ ≠

≤ ≥

× · ÷ ∂

′ ″

∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ

ø

∈ ∉ ∩ ∪

⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇

¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔

→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

Mathematical formulae

  • The Template:Tag tag typesets using LaTeX markup, which may render as an image or as HTML, depending on environmental settings. The <math> tag is best for the complex formula on its own line in an image format. If you use this tag to put a formula in the line with text, put it in the {{nowrap}} template.
  • The {{math}} template uses HTML, and will size-match a serif font, and will also prevent line-wrap. All templates are sensitive to the = sign, so remember to replace = with {{=}} in template input. Use wikimarkup '' and ''' inside the {{math}} template, as well other HTML entities. The {{math}} template is best for typeset formulas in line with the text.

{{{1}}} → <math>2x \times 4y \div 6z + 8 - \frac {y}{z^2} = 0</math> {{crlf|}} {{math|2x &times; 4y &divide; 6z + 8 &minus; {{Fraction |y|z<sup>2</sup>}} {{=}} 0}} <math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e\,\!</math> <math>\sin 2\pi x + \ln e</math> {{math|sin 2&pi;''x'' + ln ''e''}}


Spacing in simple math formulae

  • Using &nbsp; to prevent line break is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br/> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
What you type What it looks like
It follows that {{math
|''x''<sup>2</sup> &ge; 0}} is true when {{math|<VAR>x</VAR>}} is a real number.

It follows that Template:Math is true when Template:Math is a real number.

Complicated formulae

  • See Help:Displaying a formula for how to use <math>.
  • A formula displayed on a line by itself should probably be indented by using the colon (:) character.
What you type What it looks like
: <math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>
<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

Links and URLs

Free links

In Wikipedia and some other wikis, free links are used in wikitext markup to produce internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia — see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star State]] will produce Lone Star State, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star State" but in fact links to Texas.

Link to another wiki article

  • Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
  • Thus the link hereafter is to the Web address en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
  • A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
  • A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.
What you type What it looks like

London has [[public transport]].

London has public transport.

Link to this own article: "[[Help:Wiki markup]]" will appear only as bold text.

Link to this own article: "Help:Wiki markup" will appear only as bold text.

Renamed link

  • Same target, different name.
  • The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What you type What it looks like

New York also has [[public transport|public transportation]].

New York also has public transportation.

Automatically rename links

  • Simply typing the pipe character (|) after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
  • See Pipe trick for details.
Description What you type What it looks like

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses

[[kingdom (biology)|]]

kingdom

Automatically hide namespace

[[Wikipedia:Village pump|]]

Village pump

Or both

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style (headings)|]]

Manual of Style

But this doesn't work for section links

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Links|]]

Blend link

  • Endings are blended into the link.
    • Exception: a trailing apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
  • Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
  • Blending can be suppressed by using the Template:Tag tag, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What you type What it looks like

Blending active.

San Francisco also has [[public transport]]ation. Examples include [[bus]]es, [[taxicab]]s, and [[tram]]s.

San Francisco also has public transportation. Examples include buses, taxicabs, and trams.

Blending suppressed.

A [[micro-]]<nowiki />second.

A micro-second.

Link to a section of a page

  • The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
  • Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
  • If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What you type What it looks like

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

[[Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

Create page link

  • To create a new page:
    1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
    2. Save that page.
    3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
  • For more information, see starting an article and check out Wikipedia's naming conventions.
  • Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What you type What it looks like

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about [[cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

The article about cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

Redirects

  • Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
  • It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

Redirect to a section.

#REDIRECT [[United States#History]]

Link to another namespace

What you type What it looks like

See the [[Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

See the Wikipedia:Manual of Style.

Link to the same article in another language (interlanguage links)

  • To link to a corresponding page in another language, use the form: [[language code:Foreign title]].
  • It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
  • Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article, but instead appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
  • For further help, please see Interlanguage links and the complete list of language wikis available.

NOTE: To create an inline link (a clickable link within the text) to any foreign language article, see Inline interlanguage links and consider the usage notes.

Description What you type

Link from English article "Plankton" to the Spanish article "Plancton".

"es" is the language code for "español" (the Spanish language).

[[es:Plancton]]

Other examples: German (de for Deutsch), Russian (ru), and simple English (simple).

[[de:Plankton]]
[[ru:Планктон]]
[[simple:Plankton]]

Interwiki link

Description What you type What it looks like

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello.

Simple link.

Without prefix.

Named link.

[[Wiktionary:Hello]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of "Hello"]]

Wiktionary:Hello

Hello

Wiktionary definition of "Hello"

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.

All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour.

Simple link.

Without prefix.

Named link.

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

Wiktionary:fr:bonjour

fr:bonjour

bonjour

Categories

  • To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the edit box is recommended.
  • To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What you type What it looks like

Categorize an article.

[[Category:Character sets]]

Link to a category.

[[:Category:Character sets]]

Category:Character sets

Without prefix.

[[:Category:Character sets|]]

Character sets

External links

  • Square brackets indicate an external link. Note the use of a space (not a pipe) to separate the URL from the link text in the "named" link. Square brackets may be used as normal when not linking to anything — [like this].
  • An URL must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news://, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application. IPv6 addresses in URLs are currently not supported.
  • An URL containing certain characters will display and link incorrectly unless those characters are encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. Encoding can be achieved by:
  • Use the link button Vector toolbar insert link button.png on the enhanced editing toolbar to encode the link; this tool will add the bracket markup and the linked text, which may not always be desirable.
  • Or manually encode the URL by replacing these characters:
sp " , '  ; < >  ? [ ]
 %20  %22  %2c  %3a  %3b  %3c  %3e  %3f  %5b  %5d
Description What you type What it looks like

Named link with an external link icon

[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]

Wikipedia

Unnamed link

(Only used within article body for footnotes)

[http://www.wikipedia.org]

[1]

Bare URL

(Bad style)

http://www.wikipedia.org

http://www.wikipedia.org

Link without arrow

(Not often used)

<span class="plainlinks">[http://www.wikipedia.org Wikipedia]</span>

Wikipedia

Miscellaneous

"As of" tag

  • "As of" tags like "As of April 2009" and "as of April 2009" categorize info that will need updating.

For an explanation of the parameters see template documentation.

What you type What it looks like

{{As of|2009|4|df=us}}

Template:As of

{{As of|2009|4|df=us|lc=on}}

Template:As of

Media link

  • To include links to non image uploads such as sounds, use a "media" link. For images, see next section.
  • Some uploaded sounds are listed at Commons:Sound.
What you type What it looks like

[[media:Classical guitar scale.ogg|Sound]]

Sound

Links directly into edit mode

Description What you type What it looks like

Full URL.

{{fullurl:Help:Wiki markup|action=edit}}

http://www.everythingfoodanddrink.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&action=edit

"Edit" label.

{{edit}}

Automatic links

Book sources
  • Link to books using their ISBN. This is preferred to linking to a specific online bookstore, because it gives the reader a choice of vendors. However, if one bookstore or online service provides additional free information, such as table of contents or excerpts from the text, then a link to that source will aid the user and is recommended. ISBN links do not need any extra markup, provided you use one of the indicated formats.
  • To create a link to Book Sources using alternative text (e.g. the book's title), use the internal link style with the appropriate namespace.
What you type What it looks like

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 012345678X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

ISBN 0-12-345678-X

Link to a book using [[Special:BookSources/0670037818|alternative text, such as its title]]

Link to a book using alternative text, such as its title.

RFC number
What you type What it looks like

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

Text mentioning an RFC number anywhere, e.g. RFC 4321.

Pronunciation aids

It is often desirable to provide an aid to pronunciation for a word. The IPAc-en and Respell templates can be of assistance.

What you type What it looks like

'''Konjac''' ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}})

Konjac (English pronunciation: /ˈknjæk/)

'''Konjac''' ({{IPAc-en|lang|pron|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} {{respell|KOHN|yak}})

Konjac (English pronunciation: /ˈknjæk/ KOHN-yak)

''Konjac'' is pronounced {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|oʊ|n|j|æ|k}} in English.

Konjac is pronounced /ˈknjæk/ in English.

Refer to Wikipedia:Manual of Style (pronunciation) for more information.

Images

Only images that have been uploaded to Wikipedia can be used. To upload images, use the upload page. You can find the uploaded image on the image list.

What you type What it looks like Notes
A picture:
[[File:wiki.png]]
A picture:

Wiki.png

With alternative text:
[[File:wiki.png|alt=Puzzle globe logo]]
With alternative text:

Puzzle globe logo

  • Alternative text, used when the image is unavailable or when the image is loaded in a text-only browser, or when spoken aloud, is strongly encouraged. See Alternative text for images for help on choosing it.
With link:
[[File:wiki.png|link=Wikipedia]]
With link:

Wiki.png

  • Links direct to a page instead of the file.
Floating to the right side of the page using the ''frame'' attribute and a caption:
[[File:wiki.png|frame|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Floating to the right side of the page using the frame attribute and a caption:
Puzzle globe
Wikipedia logo

  • The frame tag automatically floats the image right.
  • The last parameter is the caption that appears below the image.
Floating to the right side of the page using the ''thumb'' attribute and a caption:
[[File:wiki.png|thumb|alt=Puzzle globe|Wikipedia logo]]
Floating to the right side of the page using the thumb attribute and a caption:
Puzzle globe
Wikipedia logo

  • The thumb tag automatically floats the image right.
  • An enlarge icon is placed in the lower right corner.
Floating to the right side of the page ''without'' a caption:
[[File:wiki.png|right|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
Floating to the right side of the page without a caption:
Wikipedia encyclopedia
A picture resized to 30 pixels...
[[File:wiki.png|30 px|Wikipedia encyclopedia]]
A picture resized to 30 pixels...

Wikipedia encyclopedia

Linking directly to the description page of an image:
[[:File:wiki.png]]
Linking directly to the description page of an image:

File:wiki.png

  • Clicking on an image displayed on a page (such as any of the ones above) also leads to the description page.
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:
[[Media:wiki.png|Image of jigsaw globe]]
Linking directly to an image without displaying it:

Image of jigsaw globe

  • To include links to images shown as links instead of drawn on the page, use a "media" link.
Example:
<div style="display:inline; width:220px; float:right;">
Place images here </div>

Example:

Place images here

Using the span or div elements to separate images from text (note that this may allow images to cover text).

Example:

{| align=right
|-
| 
Place images here
|}

Example:

Place images here

Using wiki markup to make a table in which to place a vertical column of images (this helps edit links match headers, especially in Firefox browsers).

See the Wikipedia's image use policy as a guideline used on Wikipedia.

For further help on images, including some more versatile abilities, see the picture tutorial.

Tables

There are two ways to build tables:

  • In special wiki-markup (see Table).
  • Using HTML elements: <table>, <tr>, <td> or <th>.

See also When tables are appropriate.

References and citing sources

Making a reference citing a printed or online source can be accomplished by using the ref tag. Inside the reference tag details about the reference are added. You can add additional attributes to add detail about the source and reference, a pipe (|) precedes each reference, each attribute goes inside the cite portion of the tag.

What it's for What you type
For creating the reference <ref name="name for reference">Use a closing tag</ref>
When you cite a book {{cite book}}
To cite a web source {{cite web}}
Book ISBN |isbn=0-8018-6646-4 (ISBN of the book)
Web URL |url=http://www.wikipedia.org
Title |title=title of source
Author |author=authors, use commas for multiple
First name |first=first name
Last name |last=last name
Location |location=location of occurrence
Publisher |publisher=who published the source
Date |date=2007-03-04 (date of source)
Year |year=year of source
Accessed date |accessdate=2008-12-07
A complete reference tag <ref name="WikiMarkup">{{cite web |url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup |title=Help:Wiki markup |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}</ref>
Referencing this again <ref name="WikiMarkup"/>
Citation needed {{citation needed}}

Templates and transcluding pages

Examples for templates: {{pad|...}}, {{math|...}}, {{as of|...}}, {{edit}}

Templates are segments of wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}. It is also possible to transclude other pages by using {{:colon and double braces}}.

There are three pairs of tags that can be used in wikitext to control how transclusion affects parts of a template or article. They determine whether or not wikitext renders, either in its own article, which we will call "here", or in another article where it is transcluded, which we will call "there".

  • <noinclude>: the content will not be rendered there. These tags have no effect here.
  • <includeonly>: the content will render only there, and will not render here (like invisible ink made visible by means of transclusion).
  • <onlyinclude>: the content will render here and will render there, but it will only render there what is between these tags.

There can be several such section "elements". Also, they can be nested. All possible renderings are achievable. For example, to render there one or more sections of the page here use <onlyinclude> tags. To append text there, wrap the addition in <includeonly> tags above, within, or below the section. To omit portions of the section, nest <noinclude> tags within it.

If a page is transcluded without transclusion markup, it may cause an unintentional categorization. Any page transcluding it will contain the same category as the original page. Wrap the category markup with <noinclude> tags to prevent incorrect categorization.

Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character.

What you type What it looks like
{{Transclusion demo}}

Template:Transclusion demo

{{Help:Transclusion demo}}

Help:Transclusion demo

This template takes two parameters,
and creates underlined text with a
hover box for many modern browsers
supporting CSS:

{{H:title|This is the hover text|
Hover your mouse over this text}}

Go to this page to see the H:title
template itself: {{tl|H:title}}

This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box for many modern browsers supporting CSS:

Hover your mouse over this text

Go to this page to see the H:title template itself: {{H:title}}

Talk and project pages

Signing comments

  • The character tilde (~) is used when adding a comment to a Talk page.
  • Your username provides a link to your user page.
Description What you type What it looks like

You should sign your comments by appending four tildes to the comment, which adds your user name plus date/time.

~~~~

Username (talk) 14:44, 18 July 2017 (UTC)

Adding three tildes will add just your user name.

~~~

Username (talk)

Adding five tildes gives the date/time alone.

~~~~~

14:44, 18 July 2017 (UTC)

What links here and related changes

What you type What it looks like

[[Special:WhatLinksHere/aaa]]

Special:WhatLinksHere/aaa

[[Special:RecentChangesLinked/aaa]]

Special:RecentChangesLinked/aaa

Linking to old revisions of pages, diffs, and specific history pages

  • External link function is used for these.
  • Open an old revision or diff and copy the URL from the address bar, pasting it where you want it.
What you type What it looks like

[http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Help:Wiki_markup&diff=330350877&oldid=330349143 previous edit]

previous edit

User edits

  • Link to a user's Contributions page.
Description What you type What it looks like
Username (registered users). [[Special:Contributions/UserName]] Special:Contributions/UserName
IPv4 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0]] Special:Contributions/192.0.2.0
IPv6 address (unregistered users). [[Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329]] Special:Contributions/2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:ff00:0042:8329

Coloring text

What you type What it looks like

I will change the color in {{color|red|the middle part of}} this sentence.

I will change the color in Template:Color this sentence.

Show deleted or inserted text

  • When editing regular Wikipedia articles, just make your changes and do not mark them up in any special way.
  • When editing your own previous remarks in talk pages, it is sometimes appropriate to mark up deleted or inserted material.
  • For striking out material, the Template:Tag markup is a less semantic element than Template:Tag.
What you type What it looks like

You can Template:Tag and Template:Tag. {{du|Double underlining}} is also possible.

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material. Template:Du is also possible.

Alternative markup:

You can Template:Tag and Template:Tag.

Alternative markup:

You can strike out deleted material and underline new material.

Notes
The Template:Tag element is listed as deprecated in HTML 4 but is used in HTML 5, with the note that it "is not appropriate when indicating document edits; to mark a span of text as having been removed from a document, use the del element".

Limiting formatting / escaping wiki markup

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the wiki to display things as you typed them — what you see is what you get! —.

What you type What it looks like
'''&<nowiki&> tag:'''

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup''. It reformats text by
removing newlines and multiple
spaces. It still interprets
special characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>

<nowiki> tag:

The nowiki tag ignores [[wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

'''&<pre&> tag:'''

<pre>The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
tag. Additionally, <pre> displays
in a mono-spaced font, and does
not  reformat    text    spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: &rarr;
</pre>

<pre> tag:

The <pre> tag ignores [[wiki]]
''markup'' as does the <nowiki>
tag. Additionally, <pre> displays
in a mono-spaced font, and does
not  reformat    text    spaces.
It still interprets special
characters: →
'''[Text without a URL]:'''

Single square brackets holding
[text without a HTTP URL] are
preserved, but single square
brackets containing a URL are
treated as being an external
[http://www.google.com Web link].

[Text without a URL]:

Single square brackets holding [text without a HTTP URL] are preserved, but single square brackets containing a URL are treated as being an external Web link.

'''Leading space:'''

Leading spaces are another way 
to preserve formatting.
 Putting a space at the
 beginning of each line
 stops the text   from
 being reformatted. 
 It still interprets [[wiki]] ''markup'' and special characters: &rarr;

Leading space:

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the
beginning of each line
stops the text   from
being reformatted. 
It still interprets wiki markup and special characters: →

Nowiki

Shortcut:
WP:NOWIKI

In some instances, it is not desirable to parse markup nor to format it using Template:Tag. Template:Tag is a parser tag that causes the included content to not be parsed as wikimarkup, except for HTML entities. It is very useful in documentation to display markup.

{{{1}}} → <nowiki>{{cite book}}</nowiki>


(Although in this particular case you'd probably prefer to use {{tl|cite book}} to create a link: {{cite book}})

A singular Template:Tag can be used to break wikimarkup.

{{{1}}} → * Unordered list


HTML entities

Template:Tag and Template:Tag parse HTML entities. If you want to escape this, replace & with &amp;.

{{{1}}} → <nowiki>&amp;</nowiki>


Use in templates

When used in a template, Template:Tag simply does not work as you may expect.

  • Including Template:Tag immediately acts upon the enclosed markup. Attempting to escape or transclude the brackets causes Template:Tag to not work at all.
  • Using Template:Code works, but has major limitations:
    • Templates, parameters, parser functions, and parser magic such as signatures are parsed, not nowikied.
    • Included Template:Tag tags will expose the strip markers.

{{{1}}} → <nowiki>{{tl|cite book}}</nowiki>


Pre

Shortcut:
WP:PRE

Template:Tag is a parser tag that emulates the HTML Template:Tag tag. It defines preformatted text that is displayed in a fixed-width font and is enclosed in a dashed box. HTML and wiki markups are escaped and spaces and line breaks are preserved, but HTML entities are parsed.

{{{1}}} → <pre><!--Comment--> [[wiki]] markup &amp;</pre>


Template:Tag formatted text does not wrap, thus text may extend past the browser window:

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. 

To resolve this, Template:Tag may use CSS styling to add wrapping or a horizontal scrollbar:

Since this involves quite a bit of markup, the template {{pre2}} is useful.

Invisible text (comments)

It's uncommonTemplate:Spaced ndashbut on occasion acceptable for notes to other editorsTemplate:Spaced ndashto add a hidden comment within the text of an article. These comments are only visible when editing or viewing the source of a page. Most comments should go on the appropriate Talk page. The format is to surround the hidden text with "<!--" and "-->" and may cover several lines, e.g.:

<!-- An example of hidden comments
 This won't be visible except in "edit" mode. -->

Another way to include a comment in the wiki markup uses the {{Void}} template, which can be abbreviated as {{^}}. This template "expands" to the empty string, generating no html output; it is visible only to people editing the wiki source. Thus {{^|A lengthy comment here}} operates similarly to the comment <!-- A lengthy comment here-->. The main difference is that the template version can be nested, while attempting to nest HTML comments produces odd results.

Variables

Everything Food & Drink namespaces
Basic namespaces Talk namespaces
0 Main Talk 1
2 User User talk 3
4 Everything Food & Drink Everything Food & Drink talk 5
6 File File talk 7
8 MediaWiki MediaWiki talk 9
10 Template Template talk 11
12 Help Help talk 13
14 Category Category talk 15
100 Book (EFD) Book talk 101
200 Music (MYW) Music talk 201
Virtual namespaces
-1 Special
-2 Media
Code Effect Notes
{{CURRENTWEEK}} 29
{{CURRENTDOW}} 2

Monday = 1, Tuesday = 2, etc., but Sunday = 0

{{CURRENTMONTH}} 07
{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}} July
{{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}} July
{{CURRENTDAY}} 18
{{CURRENTDAYNAME}} Tuesday
{{CURRENTYEAR}} 2017
{{CURRENTTIME}} 14:44
{{NUMBEROFARTICLES}} 176
{{NUMBEROFPAGES}} 4,454
{{NUMBEROFUSERS}} 38
{{PAGENAME}} Wiki markup
{{NAMESPACE}} Help
{{REVISIONID}} 26402
{{REVISIONUSER}} Mlpearc
{{localurl:pagename}} /wiki/Pagename
{{localurl:Wikipedia:Sandbox|action=edit}} http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandbox?action=edit
{{fullurl:pagename}} http://www.everythingfoodanddrink.org/wiki/Pagename
{{fullurl:pagename|query_string}} http://www.everythingfoodanddrink.org/w/index.php?title=Pagename&query_string
{{SERVER}} http://www.everythingfoodanddrink.org
{{ns:1}} Talk

{{ns:index}} e.g. {{ns:1}} → full name of namespace

{{SITENAME}} Everything Food & Drink

NUMBEROFARTICLES is the number of pages in the main namespace which contain a link and are not a redirect, in other words number of articles, stubs containing a link, and disambiguation pages.

CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN is the genitive (possessive) grammatical form of the month name, as used in some languages; CURRENTMONTHNAME is the nominative (subject) form, as usually seen in English.

In languages where it makes a difference, you can use constructs like {{grammar:case|word}} to convert a word from the nominative case to some other case. For example, {{grammar:genitive|{{CURRENTMONTHNAME}}}} means the same as {{CURRENTMONTHNAMEGEN}}.

HTML

Many HTML tags can be used in wiki markup. You can check your HTML by using markup validation.



Other formatting

Beyond the text formatting markup shown above, here are some other formatting references:


Language: English